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### 1 = 2012 = 2013

In previous posts, we learned about mathematical induction and we used induction to solve some problems. We can see that mathematical induction is a useful technique in problem solving. Today, we will consider two induction proofs that lead to a wrong result that $$1 = 2012 = 2013$$ Let us know if you can identify the wrong steps in the proofs.

### Binomial identity

As we are learning about mathematical induction, in this post, we are going to use induction to prove the following:
• formula for the Pascal's triangle $$p_{n,k} = {n \choose k} = \frac{n!}{k! (n-k)!}$$
• the binomial identity $$(x+y)^n = x^n + {n \choose 1} x^{n-1} y + {n \choose 2} x^{n-2} y^2 + \dots + {n \choose {n-2}} x^{2} y^{n-2} + {n \choose {n-1}} x y^{n-1} + y^n$$

### Mathematical induction III

Today, we will solve some more problems using mathematical induction.

Problem 7. Observe that $$\cos 2 \alpha = 2 \cos^2 \alpha - 1$$
Prove that we can write $\cos n\alpha$ as a polynomial of $\cos \alpha$.

### Mathematical induction II

Today we will use induction to solve some more problems.

Problem 4. Prove that $$1 \times 2 \times 3 + 2 \times 3 \times 4 + \dots + n (n+1)(n+2) = \frac{1}{4} n(n+1)(n+2)(n+3).$$

### Mathematical induction

Today, we will learn about mathematical induction. We usually use induction to prove a certain statement to be correct for all natural numbers.

Let us use $P(n)$ to denote a statement that involves a natural number $n$. To prove that $P(n)$ is correct for all natural number $n$, an induction proof will have the following steps

Step 1: is called the initial step. We will prove that the statement $P(n)$ is correct for the case $n=0$.

Step 2: is called the induction step. This is the most important step. In this step,
• we assume that for any $0 \leq n \leq k$, the statement $P(n)$ is correct;
• with this assumption, we will prove that the statement $P(n)$ is also correct for the case $n=k+1$.

With these two steps, by the mathematical induction principle, we conclude that the statement $P(n)$ must be correct for all natural number $n$.

### Pascal's triangle

Today, we will look at a famous number pattern, the Pascal's number triangle.
 Pascal's triangle